Leonardo "Fibonacci" de Pisa

Lived approx. 1170 to 1250 in Pisa (Italy)

How many pairs of rabbits can be bred from one pair in a year?
A man has one pair of rabbits at a certain place entirely surrounded by a wall. We wish to know how many pairs will be bred from it in one year, if the nature of these rabbits is such that they breed every month one other pair and begin to breed in the second month after their birth. ... Liber abaci (1202)

(For a very good explanation of the solution, visit http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibnat.html#Rabbits

Great LATIN lesson plan on Fibonacci! http://www.roserwilliams.com/Fibonacci%20and%20his%20Sequence.pdf

Introduction of Hindu-Arabic numerals, zero and place value to Europe

Wrote the book Liber abaci which contained a great deal of advanced mathematics for the time, including the problem that is the origin of "Fibonacci Numbers".